Energy Harvesting Aware Minimum Spanning Tree for Survivable WSN with Minimum Relay Node Addition

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Survivable wireless sensor networks that take advantage of green energy resources from the environment is considered in this paper. The particular problem of constrained relay nodes (RNs) placement to ensure communication coverage in the single-tiered topology while taking advantage of the energy harvesting potentials of sensor nodes (SNs) is dealt with. The contribution is to consider a realistic energy harvesting model where harvesting potentials may vary from one node to another. Without loss of generality, the energy model used in this paper is appropriate to wireless charging, but the proposed solution can be extended to the use of any energy harvesting technology. Based on this model, we propose a heuristic based on spanning tree calculation in an edge weighted graph model where the traffic routed at every node is proportional to its effective energy. RNs are added to help non-leaf nodes in the tree that cannot meet the defined survivability condition. A lower-bound of the proposed model is derived using integer linear programming. The proposed solution is compared by simulation to the single solution from the literature that treats the problem of RNs placement while considering energy harvesting capacity of SNs. A simplified model is used in the simulation to allow comparison. The performance results show that the proposed solution ensures survivability by adding a lower number of RNs.
wireless sensor network, Energy Harvesting