Optimal Placement of Relay Nodes Over Limited Positions in Wireless Sensor Networks

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This paper tackles the challenge of optimally placing relay nodes (RNs) in wireless sensor networks given a limited set of positions. The proposed solution consists of: 1) the usage of a realistic physical layer model based on a Rayleigh blockfading channel; 2) the calculation of the signal-to-interferenceplus- noise ratio (SINR) considering the path loss, fast fading, and interference; and 3) the usage of a weighted communication graph drawn based on outage probabilities determined from the calculated SINR for every communication link. Overall, the proposed solution aims for minimizing the outage probabilities when constructing the routing tree, by adding a minimum number of RNs that guarantee connectivity. In comparison to the state-of-the art solutions, the conducted simulations reveal that the proposed solution exhibits highly encouraging results at a reasonable cost in terms of the number of added RNs. The gain is proved high in terms of extending the network lifetime, reducing the end-to-end- delay, and increasing the goodput.
Relay node placement, wireless sensor network, SINR model, connectivity