Distributed Low-Latency Data Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

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This article considers the data aggregation scheduling problem, where a collision-free schedule is determined in a distributed way to route the aggregated data from all the sensor nodes to the base station within the least time duration. The algorithm proposed in this article (Distributed algorithm for Integrated tree Construction and data Aggregation (DICA)) intertwines the tree formation and node scheduling to reduce the time latency. Furthermore, while forming the aggregation tree, DICA maximizes the available choices for parent selection at every node, where a parent may have the same, lower, or higher hop count to the base station. The correctness of the DICA is formally proven, and upper bounds for time and communication overhead are derived. Its performance is evaluated through simulation and compared with six delay-aware aggregation algorithms. The results show that DICA outperforms competing schemes. The article also presents a general hardware-in-the-loop framework (DAF) for validating data aggregation schemes on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The framework factors in practical issues such as clock synchronization and the sensor node hardware. DICA is implemented and validated using this framework on a test bed of sensor motes that runs TinyOS 2.x, and it is compared with a distributed protocol (DAS) that is also implemented using the proposed framework.
Network Architecture and Design, Wireless communication, Network topology