Energy-Delay Constrained Minimal Relay Placement in Low Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks Under Anycast Forwarding
A constrained relay placement problem satisfying application requirements in terms of network lifetime and end-to-end (e2e) delay in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is investigated in this paper. The network and the traffic are adequately modeled considering uniform node deployment and low data rate periodic traffic generation. An optimization problem is defined to obtain the minimum number of relays to be deployed, at each level of the network, in order to fulfil network duty-cycle and e2e delay constraints under anycast forwarding based on the wakeup period parameter of the duty-cycle MAC protocol. Since the optimization problem is non-convex, an alternative and efficient algorithm for relay node placement called EDC-RP (Energy-Delay Constrained Relay Placement) is introduced. The comparison of the proposed node deployment strategy with state-of-the-art relay placement methods demonstrates the gain of the heuristic in terms of deployment cost (number of relays) over other solutions while fulfilling the application constraints.
Wireless Sensor Networks, Duty-Cycling, Asyn- chronous Protocols, Anycasting, Relay Placement