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- ItemBA: Game Theoretical Approach for Energy-Delay Balancing in Distributed Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols of Wireless Networks(ACM, 2014-07-14) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Djenouri, Djamel; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge; Badache, Nadjib
Show more Optimizing energy consumption and end-to-end (e2e) packet delay in energy constrained distributed wireless networks is a conflicting multi-objective optimization problem. This paper investigates this trade-off from a game-theoretic perspective, where the two optimization objectives are considered as virtual game players that attempt to optimize their utility values. The cost model of each player is mapped through a generalized optimization framework onto protocol specific MAC parameters. A cooperative game is then defined, in which the Nash Bargaining solution assures the balance between energy consumption and e2e packet delay. For illustration, this formulation is applied to three state-of-the-art wireless sensor network MAC protocols; X-MAC, DMAC, and LMAC as representatives of preamble sampling, slotted contention-based, and frame-based MAC categories, respectively. The paper shows the effectiveness of such framework in optimizing protocol parameters for achieving a fair energy-delay performance trade-off, under the application requirements in terms of initial energy budget and maximum e2e packet delay. The proposed framework is scalable with the increase in the number of nodes, as the players represent the optimization metrics instead of nodes.Show more - ItemCost Effective Node Deployment Strategy for Energy-Balanced and Delay-Efficient Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks(2014) Doudou, Messaoud; Djenouri, Djamel; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Badache, Nadjib
Show more The real-world node deployment aspect is investigated, while considering cost minimization for resolving the energy hole around the sink, which represents a serious problem in typical sensor networks with uniform distribution. A novel strategy is proposed that is based on the use of two sinks and a few extra relay nodes close to the sinks' areas. The traffic is then alternatively sent to the sinks in every other cycle. As a second contribution, an efficient data collection mechanism has been developed to determine the optimal data rate that meets delay requirements of sensors and improves the network lifetime. The comparison of the proposed node deployment strategy with uniform, non-uniform geometric and linear increase node distributions demonstrates that the cost of the proposed solution is very close to that of the uniform distribution and much lower than others, while achieving a load balancing at the same order of the state-of-the-art solutions.Show more - ItemCost Effective Node Deployment Strategy for Energy-Balanced and Delay-Efficient Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks(CERIST, 2014-01-08) Doudou, Messaoud; Djenouri, Djamel; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Badache, Nadjib
Show more The real-world node deployment aspect is investigated, while considering cost minimization for resolving the energy hole around the sink, which represents a serious problem in typical sensor networks with uniform distribution. A novel strategy is proposed that is based on the use of two sinks and a few extra relay nodes close to the sinks’ areas. The traffic is then alternatively sent to the sinks in every other cycle. As a second contribution, an efficient data collection mechanism has been developed to determine the optimal data rate that meets delay requirements of individual sensor reports and improves the network lifetime. The comparison of the proposed node deployment strategy with uniform, non-uniform geometric and linear increase node distributions demonstrates that the cost of the proposed solution is very close to that of the uniform distribution and much lower than all the others, while achieving a load balancing at the same order of the state-of-the-art solutions perspective.Show more - ItemDelay-efficient MAC protocol with traffic differentiation and run-time parameter adaptation for energy-constrained wireless sensor networks(Springer, 2016-02) Doudou, Messaoud; Djenouri, Djamel; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Badache, Nadjib
Show more This paper presents an asynchronous cascading wake-up MAC protocol for heterogeneous traffic gathering in low-power wireless sensor networks. It jointly considers energy/delay optimization and switches between two modes, according to the traffic type and delay requirements. The first mode is high duty cycle, where energy is traded-off for a reduced latency in presence of realtime traffic (RT). The second mode is low duty cycle, which is used for non-realtime traffic and gives more priority to energy saving. The proposed protocol, DuoMAC, has many features. First, it quietly adjusts the wake-up of a node according to (1) its parent’s wake-up time and, (2) its estimated load. Second, it incorporates a service differentiation through an improved contention window adaptation to meet delay requirements. A comprehensive analysis is provided in the paper to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in comparison with some state-of-the-art energy-delay efficient duty-cycled MAC protocols, namely DMAC, LL-MAC, and Diff-MAC. The network lifetime and the maximum end-to-end packet latency are adequately modeled, and numerically analyzed. The results show that LL-MAC has the best performance in terms of energy saving, while DuoMAC outperforms all the protocols in terms of delay reduction. To balance the delay/energy objectives, a runtime parameter adaptation mechanism has been integrated to DuoMAC. The mechanism relies on a constrained optimization problem with energy minimization in the objective function, constrained by the delay required for RT. The proposed protocol has been implemented on real motes using MicaZ and TinyOS. Experimental results show that the protocol clearly outperforms LL-MAC in terms of latency reduction, and more importantly, that the runtime parameter adaptation provides additional reduction of the latency while further decreasing the energy cost.Show more - ItemDuo-MAC: Energy and Time Constrained Data Delivery MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks(2013-07-01) Doudou, Messaoud; Mohammad, Alaei; Djenouri, Djamel; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Badache, Nadjib
Show more We present Duo-MAC, an asynchronous cascading wake-up scheduled MAC protocol for heterogeneous traffic forwarding in low-power wireless networks. Duo-MAC deals with energy-delay minimization problem and copes with transmission latency encountered by Today’s duty-cycled protocols when forwarding heterogeneous traffic types. It switches, according to the energy and delay requirements, between Low Duty cycle (LDC) and High Duty Cycle (HDC) operating modes, and it quietly adjusts the wake-up schedule of a node according to (i) its parent’s wake-up time and (ii) its estimated load, using an effective real-time signal processing linear traffic estimator. As a second contribution, Duo-MAC, proposes a service differentiation through an improved contention window adaptation algorithm to meet delay requirements of heterogeneous traffic classes. Duo- MAC’s efficiency stems from balancing between the two traffic award operation modes. Implementation and experimentation of Duo-MAC on a MicaZ mote platform reveals that the protocol outperforms other state-of-the-art MAC protocols from the energy-delay minimization perspective.Show more - ItemEnergy-Delay Constrained Minimal Relay Placement in Low Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks Under Anycast Forwarding(CERIST, 2016-06) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge
Show more A constrained relay placement problem satisfying application requirements in terms of network lifetime and end-to-end (e2e) delay in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is investigated in this paper. The network and the traffic are adequately modeled considering uniform node deployment and low data rate periodic traffic generation. An optimization problem is defined to obtain the minimum number of relays to be deployed, at each level of the network, in order to fulfil network duty-cycle and e2e delay constraints under anycast forwarding based on the wake-up period parameter of the duty-cycle MAC protocol. Since the optimization problem is non-convex, an alternative and efficient algorithm for relay node placement called EDC-RP (Energy-Delay Constrained Relay Placement) is introduced. The comparison of the proposed node deployment strategy with state-of-the-art relay placement methods demonstrates the gain of the heuristic in terms of deployment cost (number of relays) over other solutions while fulfilling the application constraints.Show more - ItemEnergy-Delay Constrained Minimal Relay Placement in Low Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks Under Anycast Forwarding(IEEE, 2016-09-04) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge
Show more A constrained relay placement problem satisfying application requirements in terms of network lifetime and end-to-end (e2e) delay in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is investigated in this paper. The network and the traffic are adequately modeled considering uniform node deployment and low data rate periodic traffic generation. An optimization problem is defined to obtain the minimum number of relays to be deployed, at each level of the network, in order to fulfil network duty-cycle and e2e delay constraints under anycast forwarding based on the wakeup period parameter of the duty-cycle MAC protocol. Since the optimization problem is non-convex, an alternative and efficient algorithm for relay node placement called EDC-RP (Energy-Delay Constrained Relay Placement) is introduced. The comparison of the proposed node deployment strategy with state-of-the-art relay placement methods demonstrates the gain of the heuristic in terms of deployment cost (number of relays) over other solutions while fulfilling the application constraints.Show more - ItemGame Theoretical Approach for Energy-Delay Balancing in Distributed Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols of Wireless Networks(CERIST, 2014-04-24) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Djenouri, Djamel; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge; Badache, Nadjib
Show more Optimizing energy consumption and end-to-end (e2e) packet delay in energy constrained distributed wireless networks is a conflicting multi-objective optimization problem. This paper investigates this trade-off from a game-theoretic perspective, where the two optimization objectives are considered as virtual game players that attempt to optimize their utility values. The cost model of each player is mapped through a generalized optimization framework onto protocol specific MAC parameters. From the optimization framework, a cooperative game is defined in which the Nash Bargaining solution assures the balance between energy consumption and e2e packet delay. For illustration, this formulation is applied to three state-of-the-art wireless sensor network MAC protocols; X-MAC, DMAC, and LMAC as representatives of preamble sampling, slotted contention-based, and frame-based MAC categories, respectively. The paper shows the effectiveness of such framework in optimizing protocol parameters that achieve a fair energy-delay performance trade-off under the application requirements in terms of initial energy budget and maximum e2e packet delay. The proposed framework is scalable with the increase in the number of nodes, as the players represent the optimization metrics instead of nodes.Show more - ItemGame Theoretical Approach for Energy-Delay Balancing in Distributed Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols of Wireless Networks(ACM, 2014-07-15) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Djenouri, Djamel; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge; Badache, Nadjib
Show more Optimizing energy consumption and end-to-end (e2e) packet delay in energy constrained distributed wireless networks is a conflicting multi-objective optimization problem. This paper investigates this trade-off from a game-theoretic perspective, where the two optimization objectives are considered as virtual game players that attempt to optimize their utility values. The cost model of each player is mapped through a generalized optimization framework onto protocol specific MAC parameters. From the optimization framework, a cooperative game is defined in which the Nash Bargaining solution assures the balance between energy consumption and e2e packet delay. For illustration, this formulation is applied to three state-of-the-art wireless sensor network MAC protocols; X-MAC, DMAC, and LMAC as representatives of preamble sampling, slotted contention-based, and frame-based MAC categories, respectively. The paper shows the effectiveness of such framework in optimizing protocol parameters that achieve a fair energy-delay performance trade-off under the application requirements in terms of initial energy budget and maximum e2e packet delay. The proposed framework is scalable with the increase in the number of nodes, as the players represent the optimization metrics instead of nodes.Show more - ItemGame Theory Framework for MAC Parameter Optimization in Energy-Delay Constrained Sensor Networks(ACM, 2016-05-15) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Djenouri, Djamel; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge; Bouabdallah, Abdelmadjid; Badache, Nadjib
Show more Optimizing energy consumption and end-to-end (e2e) packet delay in energy-constrained, delay-sensitive wireless sensor networks is a conflicting multi-objective optimization problem. We investigate the problem from a game theory perspective, where the two optimization objectives are considered as game players. The cost model of each player is mapped through a generalized optimization framework onto protocol specific MAC parameters. From the optimization framework, a game is first defined by the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) to assure energy-consumption and e2e delay balancing. Secondly, the Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) is used to find equal proportion of gain between players. Both methods offer a bargaining solution to the duty-cycle MAC protocol under different axioms. As a result, given the two performance requirements, i.e., the maximum latency tolerated by the application and the initial energy budget of nodes, the proposed framework allows to set tunable system parameters to reach a fair equilibrium point which dually minimizes the system latency and energy consumption. For illustration, this formulation is applied to six state-of-the-art Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) MAC protocols; B-MAC, X-MAC, RI-MAC, SMAC, DMAC, and LMAC. The paper shows the effectiveness and scalability of such framework in optimizing protocol parameters that achieve a fair energy-delay performance trade-off under the application requirements.Show more - ItemPerformance Optimization of Duty-Cycled MAC in Delay-Energy Constrained Sensor Network Under Uniform and Non-Uniform Traffic Generation(interscience.wiley, 2016) Doudou, Messaoud; M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Jose; Djenouri, Djamel; Badache, Nadjib; Garcia-Vidal, Jorge
Show more Duty-Cycle at the MAC layer plays a key role in energy savings and network lifetime extension. It consists in putting a node’s radio in the sleep state as soon as it has no communication activity. Traditional WSN MAC protocols are designed with short duty cycles at the cost of long delays. Careful design is required for joint energy-delay constrained applications, where the optimal parameters should be thoroughly derived. The present paper deals with this issue and mathematically derives optimal values of key MAC parameters under low data rate applications for three well known duty-cycled MAC protocols, WiseMAC, SCP-MAC, and LMAC as representatives of three MAC protocol categories, respectively preamble-sampling, slotted contention-based and frame-based. The analysis provides also the optimum traffic sampling rate that guarantees the minimum energy consumption. It shows the role of these parameters in achieving the targeted e2e (end-to-end) delay constraints under network models with uniform traffic generation, for ring and grid topologies. As a second contribution, the model is extended to non-uniform traffic scenarios, where a certain percentage of deployed nodes are relays whose role is to balance traffic forwarding and save the overall network energy. The results reveal that different optimal internal MAC parameters and traffic generation rates can be found for different configurations of relay nodes deployment, which achieve minimal network energy consumption while satisfying the application required e2e delay thresholdShow more